Saturday, March 14, 2020
Essay Sample About Matthias Schleiden Write More About a Scientist Free example essay on Matthias Scheilden: Matthias Scheilden was born on April 5, 1804. He was born in Hamburg, Germany. He died on June 23, 1881. He made a significant impact in science. He came up with a cell theory, which had a large effect of scientific attention to living processes as they happened on the cellular level. His work initiated the field of embryology. Scheilden first studied law in Heidelberg. In 1826 he received a doctorate and became an attorney in Hamburg, his hometown. He was not as successful in this as he hoped, and he did not enjoy this field of work. In 1832 he changed his mind about law and decided to study medicine in Goettingen. One of his teachers there got him interesting in botany. He went to Berlin in 1835 and spent time with his uncle, J. Horkel, and another man, Richard Brown. They were both scientists who studied mainly plant anatomy, and based most of their work on questions about the cell formation. Many scientists during this time were interested in the cell formation also. He investigated plants on a microscopic scale. This was very different from most other scientists who were only interested in naming and classifying plants. In 1837 he stated that plant growth came through the production of new cells from the nuclei of old cells, and that all plant tissues were composed of cells or derivatives of cells. He published this theory in 1938, in his paper Ã¢â¬ËContributions to PhytogenesisÃ¢â¬â¢. This theory was not made public until a year later when his friend and colleague Theodore Schwann published his Ã¢â¬ËMicroscopic Researches into Accordance in the structure and Growth of Animals and PlantsÃ¢â¬â¢. He was the first scientist to recognize the importance of the cell nucleus and to correctly state that nuclei played a part in cell formation. Scheilden thought the cell was the center of the vital force. He believed each cell had an individual existence and the life of an organism came from the way in which the cells work together. He was proved wrong in later discoveries about the mechanics of the process though. In 1839 Scheilden received his second doctorate for his botanist work. He taught at the University of Jena from 1839 to 1862, and at Dorpat from 1863 to 1864. He worked for Johannes Muller and was influenced by two other scientists, Schelling and Oken. He also proved that a nucleated cell is the only original constituent of the plant embryo, and that the development of all vegetable tissues must be referred to such cells. Matthias Scheilden was a very intelligent and well-known man who will always be a big part of science history.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Has the Euro Been a Failure - Essay Example Conversely, those states that have bandwagon together in the hopes that joining the European Union will provide the prosperity that the fabricators have promised have found out that the benefits are oftentimes outweighed by the risks. For instance, in the beginning, phases of European Union integration, there was a subset of requirements that each of the member states must ensure that they ascribed to as a determining factor of being eligible to participate in and share the Ã¢â¬Å"benefitsÃ¢â¬ of European Union membership. However, as time has progressed and the economic situation across the continent has substantially deteriorated, many of these determining factors have weighed heavily on some of the weakest member states. The article refers to these as Ã¢â¬Å"PIIGSÃ¢â¬ (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Spain). Although these economies are suffering from the pains of continental integration, their central banks, and economic institutions are beholden to upholding the demands that European Union membership has placed upon them. In this way, the needs of the nation are subjected to the demands of EU membership. The authors discuss the most prominent reason/factor which caused the European Union to integrate so hastily was the fact that European leaders, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, were in a rush to ensure that the torturous pains that Europe had experienced within the past 60 years would never again be repeated. Although the author states that this oversight was one that was born primarily out of a desire to ensure the peace and prosperity of the European block for future generations, this estimation is one that looks at the formation of the European integration through rose tinted glasses (Bergsten 18).
Monday, February 10, 2020
Plant Genome Comparison - Essay Example ecause of its relevance to biosecurity as its seeds contain high levels of highly toxic ricin protein which acts as a ribosome inactivator (Chan et al. 1). For the purpose of the genomic comparison, three studies (The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, Ming et al. and Chan et al.) exploring the genome content of these plants have been used in the succeeding sections. The Carica papaya genome is three times larger than the Arabidopsis thaliana genome but has fewer genes. In fact, Carica papaya has lesser genes than any angiosperm so far sequenced. Its genome size is 372 Mbp while that of Arabidopsis thaliana is 125 Mbp. The genome of Ricinus communis is also fairly larger compared to Arabidopsis thaliana but smaller than Carica papaya, having a size of 350 Mbp. Compared to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, Carica papaya genome has lesser disease resistance gene analogues. It also has minimal angiosperm gene set and lacks a recent genome duplication, which is unusual for other angiosperm genomes so far sequenced. The genome of Carica papaya is largely euchromatic but also has highly condensed heterochromatin knobs that represent 30Ã¢â¬â35% of its genomic DNA. In Arabidopsis thaliana genome too, there are euchromatic and heterochromatic regions. Most protein coding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana reside in the euchromatic regions while heterochromatin regions around the centromere have transposons and other repetitive sequences. In fact, in Arabidopsis thaliana account for around 10% of the genome, almost one-fifth of the intergenic DNA. The genome assembly of Ricinus communis is fairly fragmented with several megabase-sized scaffolds. Fifty percent of the Ricinus communis genome is found to be repetitive DNA, one-third of which is retrotranposons and less than 2% DNA transposons. BLASTZ alignment studies of chromosomal segments of Carica papaya with syntenic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that 34.8% of Arabidopsis thaliana genes in any one segment correspond
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Asch Phenomenon and Consumer Behavior Essay Imagine yourself sitting in a room with seven of your peers. You are asked a question and given a choice of three different answers: A, B, or C. You know the answer is C, yet every single person before you confidently states that the answer is B. Do you stick with your answer, or eliminate the fear of being wrong and embarrassed in front of your peers and go along with the group? This is the exact dilemma faced by subjects in the famous Asch experiment. The Asch phenomenon can be defined as the effect of a reference group on individual decision making that occurs because of a perceived pressure to conform to the stated opinions of the group members. As consumers, we should recognize the great impact this phenomenon can have on our buying behaviors. While interacting in a group setting, we may make choices that are different from what we would do when alone. Marketers and salespeople may use this idea to their advantage when presenting a product to potential customers. If they can get a few people to voice a positive opinion toward their products, it is likely that others will follow. As consumers, we should be aware of when this idea may be used unethically in order to protect our individual interests. For example, a salesperson may try to sell a product to an audience of potential consumers. However, some people working for the salesperson may be planted in the audience posing as naive consumers in order to influence the purchase behaviors of the other members of the audience. Also, marketers may use individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ insecurities to pressure them to go along with the group, even when it is not in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. An ad showing a man being ridiculed for buying a less expensive television set may unethically lead a consumer to think he needs to buy something unaffordable to fit in with his friends. Explanation of the Topic The Asch phenomenon is a concept derived from the findings of a study conducted in 1951. Solomon Asch (1907 1996) originally conducted this experiment to explain conformity to majority-established norms (Moghaddam, 1998). The subjects involved in the study were brought into a room with seven other students (who were all working for Asch and were instructed on what to do) and seated second-to-last around a table. The subjects were told that the experiment was concerned with accuracy and visual perception, and that their task was to choose which of the three bars on the right matched the length of the bar on the left and to give their answers aloud. The confederates in the study were instructed to give incorrect answers 12 out of 18 times in order to see whether or not the subject would go along with the crowd after hearing their incorrect responses (Ã¢â¬Å"Conformity Experiments Asch: Social PressureÃ¢â¬ ). A Test of Perception [pic] Which line in Exhibit 2 is the same length as the line in Exhibit 1? A series of experiments by Solomon Asch, testing the effects of social pressure on individual perceptions, showed that some people in some situations will go against the evidence of their own senses if the people around them seem to perceive something different. Thirty-seven of the fifty subjects conformed to the majority at least once, and fourteen of them conformed on more than half of the significant trials (Ã¢â¬Å"ConformityÃ¢â¬ ). Overall, 35 percent of the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses conformed to the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s incorrect judgments. This is surprising because the control group achieved near perfect accuracy, showing that the task was not inherently difficult. In addition, when the experiment was duplicated allowing the subjects to write down their own judgments privately after hearing the incorrect responses of the group, conformity was drastically reduced (Baxter). The reasons why subjects gave in to group influence hold important ideas for salespeople and marketers. People conform for two main reasons: because they want to be liked by the group and because they believe the group is better informed than they are (Ã¢â¬Å"ConformityÃ¢â¬ ). In this study, Asch reported that most of the participants yielded to group pressure because they assumed the majority was right and they were wrong, rather than because they wanted to be accepted by the majority (Levine, 1999). This difference is what separates the Asch phenomenon from the concept of peer pressure. Peer pressure tends to operate more in primary groups in which normative and identification group influences are at work, rather than informational group influences. A brief example may explain the differences between these three types of influences. Informational influence is at work when a person thinks, Ã¢â¬Å"I should buy that brand of cereal because my health-conscious friends recommend it as part of a nutritious diet. Ã¢â¬ Normative influence is at work when a person thinks, Ã¢â¬Å"I should buy that brand of cereal so that my friends think that I am also health-conscious, or so they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t make fun of me for eating badly. Ã¢â¬ Finally, a person reacting to identification influence would think, Ã¢â¬Å"I should buy that brand of cereal because I am a member of Weight Watchers, and all of us value that brand. AschÃ¢â¬â¢s findings support more of an informational influence, particularly because the conforming subjects did not even know the other members of the group. They just assumed that the group must know something that they did not know, or decided it was easier and safer to go along with the group. The Asch phenomenon occurs even when there is only a perceived pressure to conform. That is, if members go against the group they will not experience any negative consequences. However, when dealing with peer pressure, often individuals who do not conform are ridiculed, humiliated, or excluded by his/her peers. Looking at the Asch study, you can see that while a significant proportion of people conformed, the majority did not. This suggests that some people may be more susceptible to the phenomenon than others, and that certain situations may create this pressure to conform more than others. There are five determinants of reference group influence. If there is visible usage, high relevance of a product to the group, low individual purchase confidence, strong individual commitment to the group, and it is a non-necessary item, people are much more likely to be influenced by the opinions of the group members (Hawkins, 2004). Imagine shopping by yourself as opposed to shopping with a group of your fashion-conscious friends. You notice a red shirt on the rack, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t really care for it. One of your friends later picks up the shirt and says, Ã¢â¬Å"This shirt is absolutely fabulous. Ã¢â¬ The other members of the group agree, and soon you find yourself agreeing that you also love the shirt. You do this not only because you want to be accepted by the group, but because you assume the others know more about fashion than you do. In addition, if the shirt is a reasonable price and you are looking for something to wear to a party where everyone will be dressed fashionably, the opinions of the group members will affect your purchase decision even more. The Asch phenomenon has been demonstrated in a variety of settings. In one study, 58 percent of college students were persuaded to agree to the statement that Ã¢â¬Å"the right of freedom of speech should be suspended when the Government feels threatened,Ã¢â¬ even though not one of these subjects held this view privately (Baxter). In another study, studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of the nutritional value of a new diet food were influenced by the opinions of other members of a group. When the other students of the group were seen as Ã¢â¬Å"experts,Ã¢â¬ meaning they claimed to be majoring in and had work experience with nutrition, members changed their initial responses to conform to the group even more (Lascu, 1995). Clearly, this phenomenon should not be ignored when advertising a new product or designing a sales campaign, when potential consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions are more likely to be swayed. The technique would be useful when potential consumers see others as having greater expertise about the product than they do. However, a great deal of risk in purchasing may cause a consumer to seek out information himself rather than go off of what others say. Therefore, the Asch phenomenon may work ideally in low-expertise and low-involvement situations. Examples Examples of the Asch phenomenon can be found throughout the media. When members of a group voice their positive opinions about a product, people are more willing to go along with this stated opinion. For example, Ford Motor Company uses the Asch phenomenon to build greater brand loyalty by providing a section on their website dedicated to personal stories with Ford vehicles. By reading all of the positive stories about Ford cars and trucks, consumers may also feel pressure to think the same way about Fords. Another example of the influence group members may have on individual purchasing decisions comes from the use of infomercials in which a product is displayed to a group of potential customers. At first, the consumers are skeptical that a product could be so easy to use, so convenient, or so inexpensive. However, a consumer is instructed to use a product, is impressed by the product, and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Wow, I really can feel my legs and abs getting strongerÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Wow, this vegetable chopper really does make it easy. Ã¢â¬ Soon after, other members of the group are going along with the stated opinions of the original users, and people at home begin to agree with the group too, possibly to the point of purchasing the product. Specific companies using this technique include Ronco, Body by Jake, and Tae-bo. Pampered Chef kitchen shows work in a similar way, and depend on stated opinions of kitchen experts and groups of friends. As the host displays and uses a variety of kitchen products, showing how helpful, easy, and fun to use they are, other members of the group may try them out and voice similar opinions. A person who may not have otherwise been excited by a cooking stone or apple corer/peeler/slicer soon finds these products as amazing as the other members of the group, and has ordered them without giving a second thought as to when she will actually use them. People often find it very difficult to go against the positive opinions of movie critics and reviewers. When showing commercials for films, the previews include such statements as Ã¢â¬Å"The funniest movie of the year,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Absolutely phenomenalÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"The best drama since (fill in the blank). Ã¢â¬ Claims such as these, especially from credible critics and publications, are difficult to disagree with and tend to sway people to go see the movie. For example, a person sees a movie on opening day before it is heavily advertised. This person thinks the movie is ok, but does not recommend it to any friends or family to see. However, after watching several ads on television in which positive claims are made about the movie, the person may change his/her opinion to go along with these claims. Suddenly, the movie seems better, and the individual finds him/herself agreeing with the critics and recommending the movie to others. This may be because he/she does not want to be the only one who thinks differently, or because the critics have greater expertise on movies.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Super Athletes In the last ten years there has been a drastic change in professional athletics. Players are coming out of college much bigger, faster, and stronger than players of the past. When players reach the High School level of sports it is forced upon them that their sport is twelve months long, and it is basically a job. Players are expected to run and condition, as well as lift weights every day in the off-season. Players training so hard and so much they come out of college fully matured and developed. Jevone Kearse of the Tennessee Titans was given the nickname, Ã¢â¬Å"The Freak, due to his massive size, amazing speed, and phenomenal strength his rookie year in the NFL. Players are much bigger than they were twenty years ago. In 1979 the NFL's heaviest offensive lineman, Max Montoya of the Bengals, weighed 285 pounds. At the NFL scouting combine in February, 48 of 53 offensive linemen weighed more than 300 pounds (Oehser 2). The receivers are still fast, and the fastest guys these days are generally as fast as they were then. The difference is in who is running these speeds. As an example former Cowboys wide receiver and Olympic gold-medal sprinter Bob Hayes, ran a 4.4 forty yard dash, and he weighed 185 pounds. Jevon Kearse is 30 pounds heavier and he runs only 3/10 of a second slower in his forty yard dash (Oehser 2). Athletes are driven by a fierce competitiveness to achieve at the highest levels. Athletes in professional sports getting bigger, faster, and stronger, has led to drastic changes in the entire world of sports. More frequent and severe injuries are occurring, which is leading to changes in rules, and proposed changes for current rules. Equipment has also changed along with demands according to the physique of the players. Some have proposed changes in size and dimensions of the playing field in both the NHL and NBA. As players continue to get bigger, stronger and faster, the collisions between them cause more and more serious injuries. In the first four weeks of play in the NFL in 2001 there were 22 serious injuries, with five cases resulting in broken bones, eleven players tearing ligaments in their knees, and six severe sprains (King 106). With bone shattering collisions due to increased player speed and size, leagues have been forced to change rules and policies on hitting and contact between players.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Accounting vs. Economic Income Abstract This paper explores further into two different peer reviewed articles, and one chapter of an accounting book. These articles express the dynamics of accounting and its perspectives. It also equates for how they are determined and the usefulness of the income based on changes in the value of credits and liabilities. In addition, it expresses the need for education in both forms of income, and specific training required to truly understand the differences. Keywords:Accounting, Investments, Income, Assets, Liabilities Accounting versus Economic Income Introduction Accounting income and economic income may sound the same, but they vary greatly. Knowing the correct terminology is the mark of a true professional. (Kida & Hicks, 1982) There are several definitions and several different ways to approach the topic, but altogether they establish a better understanding. In accounting income and economic income there is more to them, than just definitions. There should be a clear understanding and precise knowledge of the two. Summary Economic income represents an increase in the command over goods and services, or as economists refer to it as a measurement of Ã¢â¬Å"better-offnessÃ¢â¬ (Walther, 2010). The Hicks approach addresses economic income is a change in wealth. This is simplified by a consumption of withdrawals by owners and savings, which constitute changes in an ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. (Lamberg, 2002) Both interpretations of the economic income are very similar, and rely on wealth. In economics, value and income concepts are thought of in terms of theoretical concepts. Ã¢â¬ (Kida & Hicks, 1982) Accounting income can be defined per word. Where Ã¢â¬Å"accounting measurements tend to be based on historical cost determined by reference to an exchange transaction with another party (such as a purchase or sale) and income represents Ã¢â¬Å"revenuesÃ¢â¬ minus Ã¢â¬Å"expensesÃ¢â¬ as determined by reference to those transac tions or events. Ã¢â¬ (Walther, 2010) The FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) approach to accounting income is revenues, plus ains, minus losses, and minus expenses, but the IASC (International Accounting Standards Committee) refers to accounting income as revenues plus gains. (Lamberg, 2002) Several different approaches to the accounting income, but in general they are all alike. Ã¢â¬Å"The concept of income for accounting purposes has been traditionally based on a set of rules and regulations utilizing an historical cost approach. Ã¢â¬ (Kida & Hicks, 1982) In order to see if students in college could really understand the differences in the two, a study was done. The purpose of this study was to test for income and value concepts to trained students in accounting and those not trained. Ã¢â¬ (Kida & Hicks, 1982) The original hypothesis of this test was the students without the accounting education would tend to leer toward and economic approach or value based accou nting system where income is viewed as a change in wealth, and the students with the knowledge and understanding would recognize the accounting procedural approach closely related to the historical cost convention. Kida & Hicks, 1982) A ten question multiple choice test was given out to 438 students at several universities, 206 with accounting training and 232 without any accounting knowledge. The original hypothesis was confirmed. The students without any accounting knowledge generally leered to an economic standpoint, and thought there answers were in a justified manner. Ã¢â¬Å"It appears that the students often become so adept at learning specific rules and regulations of accounting procedure that they overlook the more global issue of just what it is they are measuring. (Kida & Hicks, 1982) Students need an appreciation of the dynamics of accounting. (Lamberg, 2002) Conclusion In conclusion, economic income is basically about wealth, accounting income is mainly based more on how everyone determines the status of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial status. Accounting and economic knowledge is very useful. It continues to grow more and more in depth and knowledge is needed for all students in order to succeed in the business world. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s colleges, economic income concepts with the accounting procedural approach in both economics and accounting courses need to be implemented. In addition, it may be desirable to require an advanced economics course for accounting majors which reemphasizes the theoretical value based concepts. Ã¢â¬ (Kida & Hicks, 1982) References Kida, T. , & Hicks, D. (1982). Economic versus Accounting Income: The Impact of Education on students concepts. Journal of Economic Education, EBSCO Host acessed August 2010 , 40-46. Lamberg, E. (2002). Economic versus Accounting Income. Business Source Complete Database , 30-34. Walther, L. (2010). Chapter 3 Income Measurement (27-44). Retrieved from Principles of Accounting: http://www. princ iplesofaccounting. com/pdf/Chapter%203id. v. 070107. pdf
Monday, January 6, 2020
Rachel Notley: A PoliticianÃ¢â¬â¢s Body Language Background and Context: A politician needs to master two languages: verbal and nonverbal. Nonverbal communications include such things as posture, gesture, tone of voice, facial expression, and eye contact. Ã¢â¬Å"Just as a dimmer switch on a light can be used to adjust intensity, nonverbal cues often reveal shades and degrees of meaningÃ¢â¬ (Weaver, 1978, p. 21). David Gergen attributed a major part of Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s political success to his effective body language, observing that his Ã¢â¬Å"sense of humour and smile, when dealing with the press in television, were worth a million votesÃ¢â¬ (as cited in Grabe, 2009, p. 155). As a result, it is essential for politicians to master this language since a simpleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition, there is a lack of excessive pauses, slips of the tongue, repetitions, and incoherence in Rachel NotleyÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. The lack of these vocal characteristics portray confidence and sincerity. During the debate, Rachel Notley maintains an upright posture with the shoulders pushed back while the chest is pushed forward. Her feet are shoulder-width apart. In addition, her head is held high in neutral position with the ears in line with the shoulder line and the chin parallel to the floor. While Rachel Notley talks to Jim Prentice, her hips, shoulders, and head are slightly turned to the right. At times, Rachel Notley also moves her head vertically, horizontally, or sideways preventing her posture from becoming too stiff. Numerous hand gestures are used by Rachel Notley during the debate. The most common is the cutting movement, moving the arms vertically with the palms facing each other. While defending her proposal on corporate taxes, Notley excessively uses this hand gesture. At the end of her remarks on this issue, Notley has her palms downward with the fingers straightened. This signals the end of her argument. In addition, Rachel Notley also uses her fingers to demonstrate numerical amounts indicating the numbers two and five. During the debate, Rachel Notley maintains eye contact with Jim Prentice, other candidates, and the